Parshas Bo sees the culmination of the ten plagues which devestated Mitzrayim. However, Chazal tell us that during the Plague of Darkness, the Jewish people suffered terrible losses; Rashi cites the opinion that four fifths died and only one fifth remained1. The Mechilta that Rashi quotes actually brings two other opinions as to what proportion of the Jews were killed; one holds that only one fiftieth survived, and another holds that only one five hundredth were left. Rav Shimon Shwab zt”l cites a number of problems with the literal understanding of this Medrash2.
Firstly, according to the two later opinions, there were 30 million or 300 million Jews in Mitzrayim before the plagues. It is very hard to fathom that there were this many Jews there. Secondly, according to all the shitas, millions of Jews were killed and consequently this single disaster was far greater than all the plagues that the Mitzrim suffered, Rav Shwab also finds this very difficult to accept. Thirdly, he quotes Rashi that they died and were buried during the darkness so that the Mitzrim would not see that so many Jews died. He argues that if we accept this Medrash literally that millions died, then surely the Mitzrim would have noticed such significant loss.
Because of these problems Rav Shwab says that the Medrash should not be understood literally - rather only a relatively small number died, but had they lived they would have given birth to millions of people over several generations. The three opinions are arguing about how many descendants would have come from those that died. He suggests that perhaps all they disagree about is how to make an accounting of the survivors - one holds that we measure up to a certain point in time such as the building of the Beis HaMikdash, and another measures to a later point and consequently there are more descendants over that longer period.
He compares this interpretation to the Gemara which discusses the aftermath of the murder of Hevel. Hashem tells Kayin that, “the bloods of your brother are crying out to Me from the ground.3” The Gemara says that not only Hevel’s blood was crying out - so too were all his potential descendants who would now never attain life. Kayin did not just murder one man, he destroyed millions of lives through his single heinous act. Rav Shwab cites the recent tragic example of this concept in the Holocaust. He says that the Nazis did not kill six million people, rather they murdered untold millions in the form of their descendants who will never live.
So too, the tragedy of the death of the Jews in Mitzrayim was to be its long-term effect - only a small number may have died then, but over the generations, millions were lost. Rav Shwab’s pshat provides a whole new perspective to this death of the Jews in Mitzrayim. We know that the reason they died is because they were not on the level to leave Mitzrayim and become part of the Am Hashem. Rav Shwab argues that these people must have been complete reshaim to have to meet such an end. Based on the fact that they were relatively small in number and were so evil, it seems surprising that the Medrash gives so much emphasis to the long-term consequence of their death. We see from here that the loss of any Jew is cause for unlimited pain, no matter how far he is from Yiddishkeit. Moreover it is very likely that righteous people would descend from him and they are lost forever.
The Torah tells us that Moshe Rabbeinu demonstrated his awareness of this concept; when he saw a Mitzri striking a Jew, the passuk says that, “he looked this way and that way but saw no man.4” Rashi explains that Moshe looked into the future to see if any convert would descend from this Mitzri. Moshe knew that killing him would have long-term consequences and acted accordingly.
More recently, Rav Shlomo Heimann zt”l recognized this to a very high degree; he gave a shiur to dozens of talmidim which was characterized by his energetic style.. One day there was heavy snow and only four talmidim attended the shiur, yet Rav Heimann gave the shiur with the same energy as always. His talmidim asked him why he was putting so much effort into teaching such a small number of people. He answered that he was not merely teaching four students, rather all their future descendants and talmidim.
If Chazal see such a tragedy in the deaths of a few reshaim how must we feel when we look at the situation in Klal Yisroel today? We live in a world where there are very few genuinely ‘evil’ Jews - people who purposely turn their back on Torah. There are millions of Jews who, through no fault of their own, were brought up with no knowledge of Torah and very little sense of the importance of being Jewish. Every day, dozens of Jews intermarry, and their Jewish descendants are lost forever5. Some people argue that despite the intermarriage rates, we know that the Jews will never be wiped out and Mashiach will come, consequently there is no need to be so alarmed at the current trend. This attitude is severely mistaken - the reason that we should mekarev secular Jews is not to prevent the destruction of Klal Yisroel - there is no fear of that happening. But we want to give every Jew and his potential descendants the chance to remain part of Klal Yisroel so that they too can be present at the geulah. Rav Shimshon Pinchus zt"l writes that more Jews have assimilated since the Second World War than were lost in the Holocaust6. six million Jews. In effect that means that untold millions who would have been theri descendants have been lost to Yiddishkeit A person who is mekarev one Jew is in fact saving dozens of souls, giving them the chance to live a Torah life. May we all be zocheh to recognize the true value of every Jew and his potential offspring.
1 Beshalach, 13:18.
2 Me’eyn beis hashoeva, Beshalach, 13:18.
3 Bereishis, 4:10.
4 Shemos, 2:11.
5 We all have a vague, intellectual awareness that things are not as they should be but how bad is it? The intermarriage rate in USA in 1950 was 6%, by 1990 it was 52% and rising. 2 million Jews of Jewish origin do not identify themselves as Jews. 2 million self-identified Jews have no Jewish connection whatsoever. For every wedding between two Jews, two intermarriages take place. 625,000 US Jews are now practicing other religions. 11% of US Jews go to shul#. Every day dozens of intermarriages take place which means that in the time it took you to read this, some Jews were lost forever. (it should be noted that since these statistics were taken, the situation has further markedly deteriorated.
6 Tiferes Shimshon, Chanukah.